Aspergillosis - Causes and Symptoms
Definition of Aspergillosis:
Aspergillosis refers to several forms of disease caused by a fungus of genus Aspergillus. The most common forms are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis. In some individuals, the infection can even invade bone and the membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Compromised immune systems often allow Aspergillus to colonize. Aspergillosis is one of the most common fungal infection in birds caused by aspergella fumigates. Aspergillosis fungal infections mainly occur in the ear canal, eyes, nose, sinus cavities, and lungs.
Causes of Aspergillosis
Aspergillosis is caused by the inhalation of the spores of the Aspergillus fungus. Nosocomial infection may be associated with dust exposure during building renovation or construction. Occasional outbreaks of cutaneous infection traced to contaminated biomedical devices. Invasive aspergillosis rarely occurs in patients who are immunocompetent.
Aspergillus terreus, has emerged as a significant cause of aspergillosis and its incidence is growing. Aspergillus fungus can grow anywhere on dead leaves, stored grain, bird droppings, compost stacks and other decaying vegetation. Although most people are frequently exposed to aspergillus, infections caused by it such as a pneumonia or fungus ball ( aspergilloma ) are rare. A. terreus carries a much higher mortality rate than any of the more than 20 pathogenic Aspergillus species, with mortality 100% in many series. Some people, however, have an allergic reaction (hypersensitivity) to this fungus, which is called allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). ABPA is more commonly found in people with asthma and in people with cystic fibrosis.
Symptoms of Aspergillosis
Aspergillosis is mainly characterized by inflammation of the airways (bronchi) or air sacs (alveoli). The disease may mimic asthma or pneumonia, and, in fact, most patients with ABPA have asthma as well. Aspergillosis affecting the deeper tissues makes a person very ill. Some of the main symptoms of aspergillosis include:
In some serious cases,
In some people, there may be kidney failure, liver failure (causing jaundice), and breathing difficulties. Death can occur quickly.
Monitoring may include checking antibody levels and evaluating the airflow capacity of the lungs. People with asthma are generally advised to avoid their known triggers whenever possible. However, Aspergillus is a particularly common fungus. People with ABPA should try to stay away from marshes, forests, bogs, compost heaps and other areas where vegetation is known to be rotting.
Treatment for Aspergillosis
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